Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has emerged as a novel approach to tissue regeneration and is increasingly being recognized as a valuable adjunct for enhancing the healing process in various dental and oral surgical procedures.
Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) in Dental and Oral Surgery: From Wound Healing to Bone Regeneration
PRP is derived through the centrifugation of a patient’s own blood and contains growth factors that play a crucial role in wound healing and tissue repair mechanisms. This review explores the diverse applications of PRP in dental and oral surgery, its efficacy, efficiency, and risk-to-benefit ratio.
Applications of PRP
PRP, a high-concentration autologous platelet preparation in a small volume of plasma, has demonstrated its potential in promoting soft tissue healing and bone regeneration. It has been employed in procedures such as tooth extractions, periodontal surgery, implant surgery, and in the management of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ). PRP’s adhesive properties facilitate graft material handling, ensuring more predictable outcomes.
PRP’s Mechanism of Action
PRP acts by releasing alpha granules, rich in growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and others. These factors stimulate processes like cell proliferation, chemotaxis, and differentiation, essential for tissue regeneration. PDGF, in particular, is vital for hard and soft tissue healing, while TGF-β influences connective tissue repair and bone regeneration.
Applications in Dental Surgery
1. Tooth Extractions: PRP has shown potential for improving soft tissue healing after tooth extractions and reducing postoperative pain. However, its impact on bone regeneration appears to diminish after a few days.
2. Periodontal Surgery: In combination with graft materials, PRP can enhance periodontal therapy outcomes, promoting soft tissue healing and bone regeneration.
Applications in Oral Surgery
1. Soft Tissue and Bone Tissue Surgery: PRP has demonstrated its effectiveness in enhancing soft tissue repair and bone regeneration in oral surgery procedures.
2. Implant Surgery: PRP has been utilized as a coating material for dental implants, potentially improving osseointegration and the success of immediate loading protocols.
PRP in BRONJ Surgery
PRP has been explored as a complementary treatment in bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) cases. By promoting wound healing and bone maturation, PRP application during necrotic bone curettage has shown promise in managing this challenging condition.
PRP therapy is considered safe, as it utilizes a patient’s own blood, minimizing the risk of infections, immunogenic reactions, or disease transmission. The preparation process, which involves venipuncture, is relatively simple and not time-consuming for clinicians or patients.
PRP has emerged as a valuable tool in dental and oral surgery, enhancing tissue healing and regeneration. While it shows promise, further randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are needed to establish its efficacy definitively.
PRP’s ease of use, safety profile, and potential benefits make it a viable adjunct in various oral and dental surgical procedures, especially in elderly patients. However, ongoing research will be essential to solidify its role in clinical practice.
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